Facts about hydrogen
What is hydrogen, really? Read more about the basics of hydrogen and how it works as an energy carrier here.
- Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. It is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe, but it rarely exists as a gas on Earth - it must be separated from other elements.
- Hydrogen gas has the formula H2. This is the phase hydrogen has in room temperature.
- Hydrogen is colorless and odorless.
- 75% of all mass in the universe is hydrogen and 90% of all atoms in the universe is hydrogen atoms.
- Hydrogen makes up around 10% of the human body by mass
The electrically neutral hydrogen atom contains a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron.
The hydrogen molecule, H2.
- Roughly three-quarters of the sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%).
- Most stars consist of hydrogen; they shine by burning hydrogen into helium in their cores.
Hydrogen is the lightest of all atoms with the chemical symbol H and atomic weight of 1.008 u (where u = 1.66*10-27 kg). To compare; the second lightest atom is Helium with an atomic mass of 4.003 u.
- At atmospheric pressure, hydrogen is about 14 times lighter than air.
- Hydrogen is a liquid below its boiling point of 20 K (–253 ºC) and a solid below its melting point of 14 K (–259 ºC)
is the point where hydrogen liquefies
- Green hydrogen is obtained by splitting (electrolysis) water and the use of renewable power.
- The density of hydrogen is 0.0899 kg/m3 in a standard atmosphere.
The energy density for hydrogen at 20 °C:
- 1 bar: 0.003 kWh/litre
- 50 bar: 0.13 kWh/litre
- 350 bar: 0.625 kWh/litre
- 700 bar: 1.25 kWh/litre
- Liquid: 2.36 kWh/litre
- Hydrogen, and hydrogen derivatives, is an energy carrier and is thus a medium for storing energy.
- Using hydrogen in fuel cells produces an electric current that can power an electric motor in the same way as batteries do.
- Pure hydrogen gas can be combusted directly in an internal combustion engine using a pin/spark plug.
- A private car drives approximately 500 km on 5 kg of hydrogen (at 700 bar).
By the end of 2021, approximately 41,700 hydrogen cars had been sold worldwide.
- Up to 45,000 hydrogen-powered forklifts are in use today. The number har increased by 83% from 2020 to 2021.
- Hydrogen can also be used in a hybrid internal combustion engine together with diesel.
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