Facts about hydrogen

What is hydrogen, really? Read more about the basics of hydrogen and how it works as an energy carrier here.
Working with hydrogen
  • Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. It is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe, but it rarely exists as a gas on Earth - it must be separated from other elements.
  • Hydrogen gas has the formula H2. This is the phase hydrogen has in room temperature.
  • Hydrogen is colorless and odorless.
  • 75% of all mass in the universe is hydrogen and 90% of all atoms in the universe is hydrogen atoms.
  • Hydrogen makes up around 10% of the human body by mass

Hydrogen atoms and molecules 3D

The electrically neutral hydrogen atom contains a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron.

Hydrogen molecule

The hydrogen molecule, H2.

  • Roughly three-quarters of the sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%).
  • Most stars consist of hydrogen; they shine by burning hydrogen into helium in their cores.
1.008 u
Hydrogen is the lightest of all atoms with the chemical symbol H and atomic weight of 1.008 u (where u = 1.66*10-27 kg). To compare; the second lightest atom is Helium with an atomic mass of 4.003 u.
  • At atmospheric pressure, hydrogen is about 14 times lighter than air.
  • Hydrogen is a liquid below its boiling point of 20 K (–253 ºC) and a solid below its melting point of 14 K (–259 ºC)
-253 °C
is the point where hydrogen liquefies
  • Green hydrogen is obtained by splitting (electrolysis) water and the use of renewable power.
  • The density of hydrogen is 0.0899 kg/m3 in a standard atmosphere.

The energy density for hydrogen at 20 °C:

  • 1 bar: 0.003 kWh/litre
  • 50 bar: 0.13 kWh/litre
  • 350 bar: 0.625 kWh/litre
  • 700 bar: 1.25 kWh/litre
  • Liquid: 2.36 kWh/litre
  • Hydrogen, and hydrogen derivatives, is an energy carrier and is thus a medium for storing energy.
  • Using hydrogen in fuel cells produces an electric current that can power an electric motor in the same way as batteries do.
  • Pure hydrogen gas can be combusted directly in an internal combustion engine using a pin/spark plug.
  • A private car drives approximately 500 km on 5 kg of hydrogen (at 700 bar).
41 700
By the end of 2021, approximately 41,700 hydrogen cars had been sold worldwide.
  • Up to 45,000 hydrogen-powered forklifts are in use today. The number har increased by 83% from 2020 to 2021.
  • Hydrogen can also be used in a hybrid internal combustion engine together with diesel.

Read more in our articles about hydrogen here:

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